Technical Knowledgebase

Skip to end of metadata
Go to start of metadata

Please see the joint section for information related to the nodes at either end of a frame object.


Frame objects, used to model beams, columns, braces, and truss elements in planar and 3D systems, are straight lines which connect two nodes. Biaxial bending, torsion, axial deformation, and biaxial shear are all accounted for in the beam-column formulation (Bathe and Wilson, 1976) which characterizes frame behavior. Material nonlinearity may be modeled through the assignment of frame hinges. Multiple straight segments may be used to model curved members, and features are available for non-prismatic members. The CSI Analysis Reference Manual (Chapter VII: The Frame Element) provides additional information on frame objects.



Cold-formed steel trussThis tutorial demonstrates the modeling of a cold-formed steel truss system.SAP2000
Hinge first steps (CSiBridge)Basic introduction to hinge application in CSiBridge.CSiBridge
Hinge first steps (SAP2000)Basic introduction to hinge application in SAP2000.SAP2000
Import frame properties from shape librariesGuidelines for importing frame properties from shape libraries.CSiBridge
Modeling a pin connection between crossing membersModify joints and apply constraints such that a pin connection allows crossing members to translate freely.SAP2000
Radial point loadApplication of point loads in the radial direction using the Advanced Joint Coordinate Axes feature.SAP2000
Reinforced-concrete column and beam designDesign reinforced-concrete columns and beams while considering combined performance measures and interaction-surface output.SAP2000
Steel-frame pipe rackA detailed and extensive procedure which describes the modeling, analysis, and design of a 3D steel-frame pipe rack system.SAP2000
Vibrating-machinery steel skid on pilesThis tutorial demonstrates the modeling of vibrating machinery and its connection to a steel-skid structural system.SAP2000

Test Problems

Align solid and hollow sectionsModel relative positive position for frame sections which have identical outlines, but different center-of-gravity locations due to one section being hollow.SAP2000
Effect of insertion point on beam reactionsHow insertion point affects horizontal reactions and flexural response of a simply supported beam.SAP2000
End offsetsDemonstration of end offsets applied to a two-span continuous beam.SAP2000
Frame to shell connectionsThis tutorial describes the application of connections between frame and shell elements.SAP2000
Hinge response when yield point changesBehavior of a concentrated plastic hinge when the loading applied to a nonlinear frame object causes the yield point of the interaction surface to change position.SAP2000
Insertion point and transform stiffness3D demonstration of insertion-point, end-offset, and transform-stiffness application.SAP2000
Partial end releasesHand calculations present the following SAP2000 features: fixed conditions, full releases, partial releases, rotational-spring supports, and panel zones.SAP2000
Temperature load vs. insertion pointGiven temperature loading applied to a fixed-fixed beam with variable insertion point (centroid and top-center), theoretical solution is compared to that from a SAP2000 model.SAP2000