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Please see the joint section for information related to the nodes at either end of a frame object.

 

Frame objects, used to model beams, columns, braces, and truss elements in planar and 3D systems, are straight lines which connect two nodes. Biaxial bending, torsion, axial deformation, and biaxial shear are all accounted for in the beam-column formulation (Bathe and Wilson, 1976) which characterizes frame behavior. Material nonlinearity may be modeled through the assignment of frame hinges. Multiple straight segments may be used to model curved members, and features are available for non-prismatic members. The CSI Analysis Reference Manual (Chapter VII: The Frame Element) provides additional information on frame objects.

Articles

Tutorials

TitleDescriptionProgram

Cold-formed steel truss

This tutorial demonstrates the modeling of a cold-formed steel truss system.

SAP2000

Hinge first steps (CSiBridge)

Basic introduction to hinge application in CSiBridge.

CSiBridge

Hinge first steps (SAP2000)

Basic introduction to hinge application in SAP2000.

SAP2000

Import frame properties from shape libraries

Guidelines for importing frame properties from shape libraries.

CSiBridge

Modeling a pin connection between crossing members

Modify joints and apply constraints such that a pin connection allows crossing members to translate freely.

SAP2000

Radial point load

Application of point loads in the radial direction using the Advanced Joint Coordinate Axes feature.

SAP2000

Reinforced-concrete column and beam design

Design reinforced-concrete columns and beams while considering combined performance measures and interaction-surface output.

SAP2000

Steel-frame pipe rack

A detailed and extensive procedure which describes the modeling, analysis, and design of a 3D steel-frame pipe rack system.

SAP2000

Vibrating-machinery steel skid on piles

This tutorial demonstrates the modeling of vibrating machinery and its connection to a steel-skid structural system.

SAP2000

Test Problems

TitleDescriptionProgram

Align solid and hollow sections

Model relative positive position for frame sections which have identical outlines, but different center-of-gravity locations due to one section being hollow.

SAP2000

Effect of insertion point on beam reactions

How insertion point affects horizontal reactions and flexural response of a simply supported beam.

SAP2000

End offsets

Demonstration of end offsets applied to a two-span continuous beam.

SAP2000

Frame to shell connections

This tutorial describes the application of connections between frame and shell elements.

SAP2000

Hinge response when yield point changes

Behavior of a concentrated plastic hinge when the loading applied to a nonlinear frame object causes the yield point of the interaction surface to change position.

SAP2000

Insertion point and transform stiffness

3D demonstration of insertion-point, end-offset, and transform-stiffness application.

SAP2000

Partial end releases

Hand calculations present the following SAP2000 features: fixed conditions, full releases, partial releases, rotational-spring supports, and panel zones.

SAP2000

Temperature load vs. insertion point

Given temperature loading applied to a fixed-fixed beam with variable insertion point (centroid and top-center), theoretical solution is compared to that from a SAP2000 model.

SAP2000