Technical Knowledgebase

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A shell is a three or four-node area object used to model membrane and plate-bending behavior. Shell objects are useful for simulating floor, wall, and bridge deck systems; 3D curved surfaces; and components within structural members, such the web and flanges of a W-Section.

Shells may be homogeneous or layered throughout their thickness. Temperature-dependent, orthotropic, and nonlinear material properties may be assigned to layered shells. Layered shells will exhibit localization of nonlinear behavior. Shells may be assigned edge constraints, and may be loaded in any direction, along any side.

Full shell behavior and the Mindlin-Reissner thick-plate formulation are recommended for analysis. Additional options and details are discussed in the CSI Analysis Reference Manual (Homogeneous and Layered, page 159).



Create circular openingsCircular openings may be created within area objects, and the surrounding mesh may be improved.SAP2000
Modeling simply supported shellsProcedure for modeling simply supported shells and coordinating their support systems.SAP2000
Radial point loadApplication of point loads in the radial direction using the Advanced Joint Coordinate Axes feature.SAP2000

Test Problems

Frame to shell connectionsThis tutorial describes the application of connections between frame and shell elements.SAP2000
Influence surfaceInfluence-surface verification for a cantilever beam modeled using shell objects.SAP2000
Options for applying area loadsUniform (Shell), one-way Uniform to Frame (Shell), and two-way Uniform to Frame (Shell) load application to shell objects and associated meshing procedures.SAP2000