P-Delta effect, also known as geometric nonlinearity, involves the equilibrium and compatibility relationships of a structural system loaded about its deflected configuration. Of particular concern is the application of gravity load on laterally displaced multi-story building structures. This condition magnifies story drift and certain mechanical behaviors while reducing deformation capacity.
P-Delta effect typically involves large external forces upon relatively small displacements. If deformations become sufficiently large as to break from linear compatibility relationships, then Large-Displacement and Large-Deformation analyses become necessary. The two sources of P-Delta effect are illustrated in Figure 1, and described as follows:
P-Δ effect, or P-"big-delta", is associated with displacements relative to member ends. Unlike P-δ, this type of P-Delta effect is critical to nonlinear modeling and analysis. As indicated intuitively by Figure 2, gravity loading will influence structural response under significant lateral displacement. P-Δ may contribute to loss of lateral resistance, ratcheting of residual deformations, and dynamic instability (Deierlein et al. 2010). As shown in Figure 3, effective lateral stiffness decreases, reducing strength capacity in all phases of the force-deformation relationship (PEER/ATC 2010). To consider P-Δ effect directly, gravity load should be present during nonlinear analysis. Application will cause minimal increase to computational time, and will remain accurate for drift levels up to 10% (Powell 2006).
The Types of P-Delta analysis article further explains the difference between P-δ and P-Δ.
|P-Δ implementation is described in the [P-Δ implementation|kb:P-∆ implementation DRAFT] article.|