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# Joint

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Version 15

Joints represent points of connection between structural members. Joints are automatically created at the ends of line objects (frames, cables, tendons, links) and at the corners of area and solid objects. Joints may also be added manually to capture localized behavior, or to simulate restraint supports. Constraint conditions are also applied to joints to establish correlation among their displacement DOF.

Joints are fundamental to numerical solution in that stresses and strains are resolved according to joint displacement. First, an object-based model is created by drawing structural objects which are connected by joints and subjected to loading.

CSI

Software then generates a finite-element model according to structural geometry and individual-member properties. Users have additional control over mesh refinement and intersecting-object connections. The FEM model then provides for analysis, and results are reported in terms of the object-based model.

Element mass and distributed loading are automatically transferred to joint locations during analysis. Users may assign additional mass to joints. During dynamic analysis, users should also assign mass moment of inertia (MMI) to joints such that inertial forces correlate with joint acceleration. MMI formulation is presented in the

CSI

Analysis Reference Manual (page 41), and guidelines for dynamic-analysis acceleration are presented in the Time-history output-acceleration accuracy article.

# Tutorials

TitleDescriptionProgram

Guidelines for creating complicated joint patterns using interactive database editing.

SAP2000

The process for renumbering structural joints is outlined in this tutorial.

SAP2000

This tutorial provides an introduction to the assignment of joint patterns.

SAP2000

Modify joints and apply constraints such that a pin connection allows crossing members to translate freely.

SAP2000

SAP2000

# Test Problems

TitleDescriptionProgram

This tutorial describes the application of connections between frame and shell elements.

SAP2000

The modeling and response of joint openings, simulated using gap link elements, between shell segments of a post-tensioned bridge deck.

CSiBridge

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