NOTE: We recommend using at least a small amount of damping for modal and direct-integration cases, even when dampers are present in the model.


Damping, a property of the material and the structure, influences dynamic response. A certain type of damping is available for each type of load case. Within all load cases of a certain type, damping is applied consistently, though additional damping may be added to individual load cases.

  • Modal damping is used for response-spectrum and modal time-history analyses. Material modal damping, also known as composite modal damping, is weighted according to element and modal stiffness. For each material, users specify a material modal damping ratio r, in which 0 < r < 1, which relates to the damping ratio of each mode.
  • Damping devices may also be modeled as a structural subsystem, as described in the Tuned-mass damper tutorial.

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See Also

  • SAP2000 verification examples 6-005, 6-006, and 6-007 – examples which incorporate dampers and associated behaviors
  • Additional information on each of these damping types may be found in the CSI Analysis Reference Manual (Chapter VI: Material Properties, Material Damping)